Минералого-геохимические особенности пещерной фоссилизации ископаемых костей на примере пещеры Иманай (Южный Урал)

V. I. Silaev, M. N. Parshukova, D. O. Gimranov, V. N. Filippov, D. V. Kiseleva, I. V. Smoleva, E. V. Tropnikov, A. F. Khazov

Аннотация


Впервые получены результаты комплексных минералого-геохимических исследований ископаемых костей плейстоценовых млекопитающих из пещеры Иманай (Южный Урал) с использованием оптической и сканирующей электронной микроскопии, статистического объемометрического метода определения нанопористости, термического, рентгеноструктурного и рентгено-флюоресцентного анализов, газовой хроматографии, ИК, КР и РЛ спектроскопии, ИСП МС, изотопной масс-спектрометрии. Цель исследований – получение экспериментальных данных о характере и степени фоссилизации костных остатков в условиях пещер, оценка возможностей палеоэкологических реконструкций по пещерным ископаемым костям. Обсуждаются данные о микростроении костных останков, нанопористости, химическом составе и концентрации микроэлементов, рентгеноструктурных и термических свойствах, изотопном составе минеральной и органической компонент в костях. Согласно полученным данным, фоссилизация костных остатков в условиях пещер принципиально отличается на всех уровнях строения и состава ископаемых костей от таковой во внепещерных обстановках. В частности, пещерные кости отличаются интенсивной эпигенетической кальцитизацией, в 3–5 раз большим содержанием СО2 и аномально высокими значениями атомного отношения Ca/P, но многократно уступают по содержанию иллювиированных минеральных загрязнений, обогащению микроэлементами вмещающей геологической среды, содержанию Сорг и коллагена. По изотопному составу углерода и кислорода в биоапатите пещерный костный детрит является аномально тяжелым, сближаясь с изотопным составом углерода и кислорода в морских известняках. Приведены некоторые палеоэкологические реконструкции, включая диету пещерных животных, рассмотрены доказательства обитания в пещере Иманай поздних неандертальцев.

Ключевые слова


неоплейстоцен; Южный Урал; пещера Иманай; пещерные львы и медведи; минералогогеохимические исследования; особенности пещерной фоссилизации ископаемых костей; палеоэкологические реконструкции; поздние неандертальцы

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Литература


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17072/psu.geol.19.4.323

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(c) 2020 V. I. Silaev, M. N. Parshukova, D. O. Gimranov, V. N. Filippov, D. V. Kiseleva, I. V. Smoleva, E. V. Tropnikov, A. F. Khazov

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